CBT reduces fear and restores function for patients after cardiac defibrillator implantation

A recent article in Current Psychiatry reviews the negative effects on quality of life for people who receive an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) for irregular heart rhythms. These effects are particularly severe after the first experience of a “shock”—or ICD discharge. Though life-saving, these high-energy electrical discharges (shocks) are typically painful, and many patients experience anxiety, anger, and a sense of helplessness.

After a shock, patients instinctively begin to analyze the events or behaviors leading to the shock—which are often routine and not truly associated with the discharge event—so that they can avoid or even eliminate them from their lives. The fear of another shock and the fear of anything that could precipitate one can result in a “fear of fear” cycle. Patients may then start limiting their lifestyles so dramatically that depression ensues.

The authors suggest that this scenario can be avoided by routine cognitive-behavioral assessments during follow-up visits after the ICD implantation. Ideally, treatment consists of a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and support. With CBT, patients are guided to see how their thoughts about the device might be erroneous. Daily logs of ICD-related thoughts and cognitive re-structuring are useful CBT strategies.

In an example referenced in this article, eight sessions of CBT, which included exposure therapy and relaxation training, allowed a patient to resume most of his activities, and had a beneficial effect on his personal relationships and quality of life.

Study authors: D. P. Gibson, K. K. Kuntz  


There’s nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so…

Does Shakespeare’s famous maxim apply to head injury?

According to a new study, the answer is yes.

Researchers recently looked at patients with mild head injuries (90% of head injuries in Western countries are classified as “mild”) to see whether perceptions of illness contributed to the development and severity of post-concusional syndrome (PCS). 73 patients with mild head injuries participated in the study. They were monitored for PCS symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, perceptions of illness, depression and anxiety. Scales were completed at the time of injury, and at 3-month follow-up.

The results: patients who believed their injuries would have a serious effect on their quality of life were at greater risk for post-concusional symptoms.

What are the implications for treatment? As the article states: “Recognition of the maladaptive cognitions that contribute to poor outcome of the sort suggested by this study will be helpful in the development of effective cognitive-behavioral interventions.”